One of the problems I discovered is that the terminal bell doesn't work. It appears that when they decided to disable the PC speaker beep (which I actually sort of prefer in some cases), they also disabled the terminal bell without providing an easy way to re-enable it. I was able to get it to work again by running the following:
pactl upload-sample /usr/share/sounds/ubuntu/stereo/bell.ogg bell.ogg pactl load-module module-x11-bell display=:0.0 sample=bell.ogg xset b 100
After doing this, I could hear the bell when doing "echo -e '\a'", when doing tab completion, or hitting Control-g in a non-windowed Emacs session. Unfortunately, there is no bell sound in windowed Emacs sessions, though.